It is mainly used for two purposes, as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and for antifreeze formulations.
It is an odorless, colorless, sweet-tasting, viscous liquid.
Ethylene glycol is produced from ethylene ethenevia the intermediate ethylene oxide. Ethylene oxide reacts with water to produce ethylene glycol according to the chemical equation :.
THERMODYNAMICS Estimate the temperature at which ethylene glycol boils in a vacuum distillation?
This reaction can be catalyzed by either acids or basesor can occur at neutral pH under elevated temperatures. The highest yields of ethylene glycol occur at acidic or neutral pH with a large excess of water. The major byproducts are the oligomers diethylene glycoltriethylene glycoland tetraethylene glycol. The separation of these oligomers and water is energy-intensive. About 6. The carbon dioxide comes in part from the ethylene oxide production, where a part of the ethylene is completely oxidized.
Ethylene glycol is produced from carbon monoxide in countries with large coal reserves and less stringent environmental regulations. The oxidative carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate provides a promising approach to the production of C 1 -based ethylene glycol. Because the methanol is recycled, only carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and oxygen are consumed.USE OF A DEAN STARK TRAP with Dr. Mark Niemczyk, Ph.D.
The caterpillar of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonellahas gut bacteria with the ability to degrade polyethylene PE into ethylene glycol. According to most sources, French chemist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz — first prepared ethylene glycol in Wurtz named his new compound "glycol" because it shared qualities with both ethyl alcohol with one hydroxyl group and glycerin with three hydroxyl groups. In the United States, semicommercial production of ethylene glycol via ethylene chlorohydrin started in Byethylene glycol was being used by almost all dynamite manufacturers.
InCarbide started up the first plant based on Lefort's process for vapor-phase oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide. Carbide maintained a monopoly on the direct oxidation process untilwhen the Scientific Design process was commercialized and offered for licensing.
The major use of ethylene glycol is as a medium for convective heat transfer in, for example, automobiles and liquid-cooled computers. Ethylene glycol is also commonly used as a coolant for chilled-water air-conditioning systems that either place the chiller or air handlers outside or must cool below the freezing temperature of water.
The ethylene glycol either gains energy from the source lake, ocean, water well or dissipates heat to the sink, depending on whether the system is being used for heating or cooling.
Pure ethylene glycol has a specific heat capacity about one half that of water. So, while providing freeze protection and an increased boiling point, ethylene glycol lowers the specific heat capacity of water mixtures relative to pure water. The formation of large bubbles in cooling passages of internal combustion engines will severely inhibit heat flow flux from the area, so that allowing nucleation tiny bubbles to occur is not advisable.
Large bubbles in cooling passages will be self-sustaining or grow larger, with a virtually complete loss of cooling in the area. Cooling by other effects such as air draft from fans not considered in pure nucleation analysis will assist in preventing large-bubble formation. The mixture of ethylene glycol with water provides additional benefits to coolant and antifreeze solutions, such as preventing corrosion and acid degradation, as well as inhibiting the growth of most microbes and fungi.
The freezing point depression of some mixtures can be explained as a colligative property of solutions but, in highly concentrated mixtures such as the example, deviations from ideal solution behavior are expected due to the influence of intermolecular forces.
There is a difference in the mixing ratio, depending on whether it is ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. It is important that the mixture is frost-proof at the lowest operating temperature. Because of the depressed freezing temperatures, ethylene glycol is used as a de-icing fluid for windshields and aircraft, as an antifreeze in automobile engines, and as a component of vitrification anticrystallization mixtures for low-temperature preservation of biological tissues and organs.
The use of ethylene glycol not only depresses the freezing point of aqueous mixtures, but also elevates their boiling point. This results in the operating temperature range for heat-transfer fluids being broadened on both ends of the temperature scale. The increase in boiling temperature is due to pure ethylene glycol having a much higher boiling point and lower vapor pressure than pure water, as is typical with most binary mixtures of volatile liquids.
In the plastic industryethylene glycol is an important precursor to polyester fibers and resins. Polyethylene terephthalateused to make plastic bottles for soft drinksis prepared from ethylene glycol.
Ethylene glycol is used in the natural gas industry to remove water vapor from natural gas before further processing, in much the same manner as triethylene glycol TEG. Because of its high boiling point and affinity for water, ethylene glycol is a useful desiccant.Figures and tables showing how the properties of air changes along the boiling and condensation curves temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions.
An air phase diagram are also given. Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, pKa-values, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule are given for different alcohols and acids. Formulas and examples of calculation of boiling point of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and molecular weight.Somebody once told me lyrics
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene, also called benzol. Phase diagram included. The elements of the periodic system with names, symbols, atomic numbers and weights, melting and boiling points, density, electronegativity and electron affinity, and electron configuration. Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethanol also called alcohol or ethyl alcohol. Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethylene, also called ethene, acetene and olefiant gas.
Freezing point, viscosity, specific gravity and specific heat of ethylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids, or brines. Melting points, heat of fusions, boiling points and heat to evaporate common substances - like hydrogen, water, gold and more. Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, flash point and autoignition temperature, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule are given for different hydrocarbons.
Physical constants for more than common inorganic compounds. Melting and boiling point temperatures, latent heat of evaporation, and melting heat of common substances like copper, gold, lead and more - SI units. Boiling and melting points of amines, diamines, pyrroles, pyridines, piperidines and quinolines shown together with their molecular structures, as well as molweights and density.
Boiling and melting points of thoils, sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes shown together with molecular structures, as well as molweights and density. Chemical, physical and thermal properties of pentane, also called n-pentane. Freezing points of propylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids - suitable for the food processing industry. Chemical, physical and thermal properties of toluene, also called methylbenzene, toluol and phenylmethane. Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.
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Search the Engineering ToolBox.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Production of Ethylene Glycol.Zody chair by haworth review
Anieti-mfon E Inyang. Download Free PDF. Free PDF. Download PDF Package. Premium PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. This process was in use in the s, but this process was replaced later by combined ethylene oxide-glycol plants. Halcon Acetoxylatin Process: Two reaction steps were used in the Oxirane plant. In the first, ethylene glycol diacatate is obtained by the oxidation of ethylene in an acetic acid solution, catalyzed by tellurium and a bromine compound.
The reaction complex, which is quite complicated, proceeds via a tellurium- bromoethylene complex. The reaction liquid effluent is withdrawn and processed to recover glycol acetates and glycol and provide the recycle streams back to oxidation. In the second step of the process, the glycol acetates are hydrolyzed to ethylene glycol and acetic acid. The process is obviously relatively more complex and will amount to huge capital cost and Literature also shows that it has operating difficulties.
Esterification: Ethylene glycol can be produced by reaction of formaldehyde with carbon monoxide. This route first produces glycolic acid which is converted by esterification and hydrogenolysis to ethylene glycol. A redox metal compound such as copper oxidizable with molecular oxygen is added to the reaction medium to permit the regeneration of the thallium salt. The Teijin process is still in the works and yet to be commercialized.Ethylene glycol based engine coolants are increasingly being judged as hazardous wastes.
Various methods are being used to allow reuse of these coolant materials. Purification by vacuum distillation is one process that produces a very pure ethylene glycol for reuse. This paper describes the physical chemistry of the vacuum distillation process as it applies to an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol contaminated by a multitude of dissolved and insoluble solids.
It summarizes data that shows the resultant ethylene glycol is of excellent quality for producing stable and protective engine coolant. The science of distillation has been used for centuries for purifying volatile materials; in recent decades, distillation processes have been developed that result in extremely high levels of purification. In general terms, many modern-day chemicals including ethylene glycol are purified during their production by distillation.
Thus, distillation is involved with many chemical processes and is a proven, well developed method of separation. The vapor, of course, is richer in the more volatile component s than the remaining liquid. In batch distillation, the vapor is cooled and condensed back into a liquid condensate enriched in the most volatile component.
In the more common and complex fractional distillation, the batch process is, in essence, repeated over and over again by special, expensive equipment to gain a greater degree of separation.
Nearly perfect separation of each volatile component is, in some cases, possible with this equipment. When two materials, as in used engine coolants, have widely differing boiling temperatures, a single stage distillation process is quite effective - as shown in this paper. Subscribers can view annotate, and download all of SAE's content.
View Details. Browse Publications Technical Papers Citation: Claunch, C. Download Citation. Author s : C. Kenneth Claunch.
Related Topics: Coolants Hazardous materials Vacuum. Preview Document Add to Cart. Login to see discount. Special Offer: Download multiple Technical Papers each year? TechSelect is a cost-effective subscription option to select and download full-text Technical Papers per year. Find more information here.Cost of such ethylene-glycol operated ejector system can be recovered in a few months and further savings and profit will continue as long as the plant remains in service.
In the production of polyester polymers, the use of such systems enables effective waste reduction and energy conservation in reactor service.
Production of Ethylene Glycol
The motive fluid MEG in these systems is ethylene glycol which in the reactor ejectors acts as process solvent. Mono ethylene-glycol ejector system involves the use of same process solvent ethylene-glycol as motive fluid there by eliminating the contamination of steam condensate.
An added benefit of such a system is that the process contamination usually caused by the back streaming of steam in conventional ejectors is eliminated via the use of organic vapor.
With such exceptional waste reducing features the design will be economically advantageous. Due to high boiling point requirements of such systems the intercondenser of ethylene-glycol ejector system will operate at lower pressures than conventional vacuum systems. This will in turn increase the benefits and reliability of design also with use of such process solvent ethylene-glycol and chances of corrosion are reduced to a great extent.
However other organic vapors such as e. Contact Us. Process Solutions. Eliminates the need of steam for all polyester plants. Typical Application Vacuum Generation for polycondensation processes e. General Catalogue Download. Get In Touch.It is a colorless, practically odorless, poisonous, and hygroscopic liquid with a sweetish taste.
It is miscible in wateralcoholetheracetoneand ethylene glycol. DEG is produced by the partial hydrolysis of ethylene oxide. Depending on the conditions, varying amounts of DEG and related glycols are produced. The resulting product is two ethylene glycol molecules joined by an ether bond.Hga ka full form
The industry generally operates to maximize MEG production. Ethylene glycol is by far the largest volume of the glycol products in a variety of applications. Availability of DEG will depend on demand for derivatives of the primary product, ethylene glycol, rather than on DEG market requirements.
Diethylene glycol is one of several glycols derived from ethylene oxide.Ali gatie songs lyrics
These compounds are all hydrophilicmore so than most diolsby virtue of the ether functionality. Diethylene glycol is used in the manufacture of saturated and unsaturated polyester resinspolyurethanesand plasticizers. It is a solvent for nitrocelluloseresinsdyesoilsand other organic compounds. It is a humectant for tobaccocorkprinting inkand glue. A dilute solution of diethylene glycol can also be used as a cryoprotectant ; however, ethylene glycol is much more commonly used.
Most ethylene glycol antifreeze contains a few percent diethylene glycol, present as an byproduct of ethylene glycol production. Some authors suggest the minimum toxic dose is estimated at 0. The U.
Code of Federal Regulations allows no more than 0. Diethylene glycol has moderate acute toxicity in animal experiments. It appears diethylene glycol is more hazardous to humans than implied by oral toxicity data in laboratory animals.
Although there is limited information about toxicokinetics in humans, observations in mass poisonings and experimental studies suggest the following information:. The principal method of absorption is through oral ingestion. Dermal absorption is very low, unless it is administered on broken or damaged skin. After ingestion, DEG is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and distributed by the bloodstream throughout the body, reaching peak blood concentrations within 30 to minutes.
Once DEG reaches the liver, it is metabolized by enzymes. At first, scientists thought that DEG metabolized into ethylene glycol, which is poisonous due to the metabolic production of glycolic acidglyoxylic acidand ultimately oxalic acid.
Later on, HEAA leaves the liver through the bloodstream, being partially filtered in the kidneys for elimination. As a consequence, the concentrations of the weak acid HEAA and metabolites may cause renal delay, leading to metabolic acidosis and further liver and kidney damage.
The symptoms of poisoning typically occur in three characteristic intervals: . Fomepizole or ethanol should be quickly administered to prevent diethylene glycol being metabolized to the compound or compounds that cause the real damage.
For late diagnosis where ethanol or fomepizole is ineffective, because DEG has already been metabolized, hemodialysis becomes the only treatment available. The prognosis depends on prompt diagnosis and treatment due to the high mortality rate DEG intoxication produces.
Patients who survive but develop kidney failure remain dialysis-dependent. All patients are likely to suffer significant morbidity. The physical properties of diethylene glycol make it an excellent counterfeit for pharmaceutical-grade glycerine also called glycerol or propylene glycoland has caused many deaths in different countries.
Incidents include its use in China as a component of cheap toothpaste, and by winemakers in Europe as an adulterant to create a "sweet" wine. InS. Massengill Co. The company tested the new product, Elixir Sulfanilamidefor viscosity, appearance and fragrance.To browse Academia.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Production of Ethylene Glycol. Anieti-mfon E Inyang. Download Free PDF. Free PDF. Download with Google Download with Facebook or. Download PDF Package. Premium PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. This process was in use in the s, but this process was replaced later by combined ethylene oxide-glycol plants.
Halcon Acetoxylatin Process: Two reaction steps were used in the Oxirane plant. In the first, ethylene glycol diacatate is obtained by the oxidation of ethylene in an acetic acid solution, catalyzed by tellurium and a bromine compound. The reaction complex, which is quite complicated, proceeds via a tellurium- bromoethylene complex.
The reaction liquid effluent is withdrawn and processed to recover glycol acetates and glycol and provide the recycle streams back to oxidation. In the second step of the process, the glycol acetates are hydrolyzed to ethylene glycol and acetic acid. The process is obviously relatively more complex and will amount to huge capital cost and Literature also shows that it has operating difficulties.
Esterification: Ethylene glycol can be produced by reaction of formaldehyde with carbon monoxide.
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